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ITS/CVO CVISN Glossary, POR-96-6997 V2.0, December 2000


1.1 Purpose

This document defines terms and acronyms used in current Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) documents and used in activities relevant to development of a national Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) system architecture for commercial vehicle operations (CVO).  This document may serve as a basic reference for anyone who is interested or involved in CVO systems.

1.2 Document Scope

This document contains acronyms and definitions about operational tests and projects related to CVO, and nonprofit organizations that serve CVO.  Not included in this document are data dictionary terms relating to entities, processes, and data elements in electronic data interchange.

1.3 Document Organization

This document is organized into three sections:
  • Section 1 contains an introduction to the document.  It describes the purpose, scope, organization, and references for the document.
  • Section 2 contains a list of acronyms.
  • Section 3 contains the glossary definitions.

1.4 Document References

The definitions contained in Section 3 of this document were taken from a variety of sources, including informal papers, standards, and existing ITS and CVO documentation.  Sometimes, the reference for the term is a published document.  In other cases, the definition is taken from information that APL received informally from conversations or during meetings.  If a reference is known, a reference number is listed after the term’s definition.  The following references were used in generating the definitions.
Report to Congress, Base State Working Group on Uniform Motor Carrier Programs, December 17, 1993.
Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
Urban Public Transportation Glossary, Transportation Research Board, 1989.
ATA Policy Brochure.
Advantage I-75 Final Report, JHK & Associates, May 1992.
AAMVAnet 1992–1993 Annual Report, AAMVAnet Inc.
Cost/Benefit Analysis of a Rural ATIS, Transportation Research Board, January 1994.
An Introduction to Electronic Data Interchange, Data Interchange Standards Association (DISA), September 1, 1991.
Handling Hazardous Materials, Department of Safety, American Trucking Associations 1994 Edition.
NLETS General Report, NLETS Inc., June 1994.
1993 Annual Report, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Society of America.
CVISN Statement of Direction, JHU/APL, March 10, 1997.
Maine, New Hampshire & Vermont Motor Carrier Administration Overview, CSI Inc., April 1994.
IVHS Strategic Plan Report to Congress, DOT, December 18, 1992.
Finding From Five Years of Operating Oregon’s Automated Woodburn Port of Entry, TRB, January 1994.
Western States Transparent Borders Project, Description of Current State Practices for Idaho, Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), May 1993.
Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology Program Highlight, 1993.
Improved SCE Selection Process for Ranking Potentially High Risk Carriers, FHWA, October 1994.
The MCMIS Motor Carrier Safety Profile Documentation FHWA/OMC, August 1992.
Proposed Standard for Dedicated, Shortrange, Two-Way Vehicle to Roadside Communications, ASTM, December 1993.
ANSI D-20.1 Data Element Dictionary, AAMVA, October 1993.
International Registration Plan, AAMVA, August 22, 1994.
CDLIS Detailed Design Document 3.2, AAMVAnet, November 1992.
Premier Carrier Pilot Project Program Design and Evaluation Criteria, Volpe, September 1994.
The Commercial Vehicle Information System Interim Report to Congress (DRAFT), January 1995, FHWA.
Encyclopedia of Associations, 29th Edition, 1995.
North American Free Trade Agreement, Department of Commerce, 1994.
Western States Transparent Borders, Description of Current State Practices, Washington, WA-RD 309.1, April 1993.
Systems Planning for Automated Commercial Vehicle Licensing and Permitting Systems, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., October 1993.
Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance Petition for Rule Change, CVSA, July 1994.
CVIS Definitions and Abbreviations, November 22, 1994.
Information Engineering, Planning and Analysis (Book II), James Martin, 1990.
A Comparison of IVHS Progress in the United States, Europe, and Japan, R. L. French and Associates, December 31, 1993.
Heavy Vehicle Use Tax Return, Form 2290, Rev. July 1993.
Commercial Vehicle Information Systems Network Operational Concept Document, JHU/APL, POR-96-6989 P.2, June 1996.
Commercial Vehicle Information Systems Network Architecture Specification, JHU/APL, POR-96-6985, 29 February 1996.
EDI TS286, IFTA Credentials Implementation Guide, Volume III, JHU/APL, POR-97-6996, 31 March 1997.
Balancing Growth and Diversity, AAMVAnet, Inc. 1992–1993 Annual Report.
Design of the Roadside Operations Computer, JHU/APL, February 17, 1998.
Intelligent Transportation Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations Program Plan, JHU/APL, D.2, January 1998.
Commercial Vehicle Information Exchange Window Project Plan, JHU/APL, POR-98-7077, February 1998.
Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks Interoperability Test Plan, JHU/APL, POR-97-7072, October 31, 1997.
Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology, IEEE Std 610.12-1990, 1999.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), http://www.w3.org/XML/.  This copyright notice applies to all documents from the reference:  Copyright © World Wide Web Consortium, (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, Keio University).  All Rights Reserved.  W3C® is a registered trademark of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on behalf of the World Wide Web Consortium http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ .
Bosak, Jon, XML, Java, and the future of the Web, March 1997, http://metalab.unc.edu/pub/sun-info/standards/xml/why/xmlapps.htm .
Bryan, Martin, An Introduction to the Extensible Markup Language (XML), 1997, http://www.personal.u-net.com/~sgml/xmlintro.htm .
The HTML Writer’s Guild, CSS Frequently Asked Questions, 1998, http://www.hwg.org/resources/faqs/ccsFAQ.html.
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2. List of Acronyms

This section provides acronyms, listed in alphabetical order, and their expanded name.  Definitions of many of these terms are given in the glossary under the expanded name.
American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Architecture Configuration Control Board
Automated Compliance Review Pilot
Annapolis Data Center
Archived Data User Service
Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation Concept
Application File Format
Automated Highway System
Automated Mileage and Stateline Crossing Operational Test
American National Standards Institute
Application Processing Interface
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking
Advanced Public Transportation Systems
Architecture & Standards
Automated Safety Assurance Program
Accredited Standards Committee
Abstract Syntax Notation
(Not an acronym)
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Trucking Associations
Advanced Technologies for International and Intermodal Ports of Entry
Advanced Traveler Information Systems
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Advanced Traffic/Management Systems
(Not an acronym)
Automatic Vehicle Classification
Advanced Vehicle Control Systems
Automatic Vehicle Identification
Automatic Vehicle Location
Business Process Re-engineering
Base State Working Group
Credentials Administration
Conformance Assurance Performance
Carrier Automated Performance Review Information
Credentials Administration Requirements Specifications
Computer Aided Software Engineering
Carrier Automated Transaction
Configuration Control Board
Compact Disk
Commercial Driver’s License
Commercial Driver’s License Information System
CVIEW Data Mailbox
Cellular Digital Packet Data
Compact Disk – Read Only Memory
Comite´ Europe´en de Normalisation
Code of Federal Regulations
Credentialing Interface
Custom Interface Agreement
Credential Input System; Central Information Site
Configuration Management
Capability Maturity Model
Commercial Motor Vehicle
Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act
CVISN Operational and Architectural Compatibility Handbook
Conformance Assessment Team
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
COmmercial VEhicle
Critical Path Method
Compliance Review
Change Request
Change Request Form
CVISN State Advisor
Carrier Safety Fitness Rating
Cambridge Systematics, Inc.
Cascading Style Sheets
Customs Cargo Report Message
Customs Declaration
Customs Conveyance Report Message
Customs Response Message
Commercial Vehicle
(Obsolete; see CVIEW)
Commercial Vehicle Information Exchange Window
Commercial Vehicle Information System
Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks
Commercial Vehicle Licensing
Commercial Vehicle Operations
Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance
Commercial Vehicle Safety Plan
Calendar Year
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Doing Business As
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Drivers License
Data Mailbox
Department of Motor Vehicles
Digital Network Architecture
Date of Birth
Department of Licensing
Document Object Model
Department of Transportation
Data Processing Interface Unit
Dedicated Short Range Communication
Document Style Semantics and Specification Language
Document Type Definition
Dynamic Downhill Truck Speed Warning System
Data Universal Numbering System
Driver/Vehicle Inspection System
Electronic Data Interchange
EDI For Administration, Commerce, and Transport
Electronic Data Library
Electronic One-Stop Shopping
Electronic Funds Transfer
Electronics Industry Association
Expected Processing and International Crossing
Equivalent Single Axle Loads
Electronic Screening (E-Screening) Enrollment
Electronic Toll Collection
Electronic Toll and Traffic Management
Frequently Asked Questions
Fatal Accident Reporting System
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework
Federal Employer Identification Number
Flat File Equivalent
Federal Heavy Vehicle Use Tax
Federal Highway Administration
Federal Information Processing Standards
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations
HazMat Fleet Management and Data Monitoring System
Fleet Management System
Federal Networking Council
Field Systems Group
Feasibility Study Report
Federation of Tax Administrators; Federal Transit Administration
File Transfer Protocol
Federal Telecommunications System
Federal Telecommunications System 2000
Gross Combination Weight Rating
Geographical Information System
Greenwich Meridian/Mean Time
Global Positioning System
Global Services Network
Graphical User Interface
Gross Vehicle Weight
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
Hazardous Material
Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicle
Heavy Vehicle Electronic License Plate Program
Hazardous Material
Hazardous Material Transportation Act
Hazardous Material Transportation Uniform Safety Act
Hours of service
High Occupancy Vehicle
High Speed Weigh-In-Motion
HyperText Markup Language
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Heavy Vehicle Use Tax
International Association of Chiefs of Police
Intermodal Association of North America
International Border Clearance
International Border Electronic Crossing
International Business Machine
International Bridge, Tunnel, and Turnpike Association
Intelligent Console Architecture
Interstate Commerce Commission
Interface Control Document
ITS Cooperative Deployment Network
In Cab Notification
Indefinite Delivery / Indefinite Quantity
Intelligent Decision Technologies
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Information Exchange Network
Information Exchange System
International Fuel Tax Agreement
Implementation Guide
Information Management Systems
International Council on Systems Engineering
Immigration and Naturalization Service
Idaho, Oregon, Utah
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol Security
Inter-regional; Infrared
International Registration Plan
Information System(s)
Information Systems Architecture
Integrated Services Digital Network
International Standards Organization
Internet Service Provider
Inspection Selection System
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
Information Technology
International Trade Data System
Institute of Transportation Engineers
Information Technology Omnibus Procurement
Intelligent Transportation Systems (formerly IVHS)
Intelligent Transportation Systems - America
Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System
Intelligent Vehicle Initiative
Joint Application Development
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
Joint Program Office
Licensing and Insurance
Licensing Application Migration Project
Local Area Network
Lockheed Martin Information Management Systems
Legacy Modification
License Plate Reader
Legacy System Interface
Mainline Automated Clearance System
Multi-Jurisdictional Automated Preclearance System
Motor Carrier Data Collection
Motor Carrier Management Information System
Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program
Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Process
Model Deployment Initiative
Mobile Data Terminal
Mid-West Electronic One-Stop Shopping
Memorandum of Agreement
Measure Of Effectiveness
Michigan/Ontario/New York
Multi-Jurisdictional Oversize and Overweight Organization
Metropolitan Planning Organization
Motor Vehicle Administration
Not Applicable (also N/A)
North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Trade Automation Prototype
National Cooperative Highway Research Program
National Crime Information Center
Network Control Program
National Driver Register
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
New England Transportation Consortium
National Governors’ Association
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
National Institute for Environmental Renewal
National Incident Management Coalition
National Law Enforcement Telecommunication System
National Motor Vehicle Title Information System
Notice Of Investigation
North American Preclearance and Safety System
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
National Private Truck Council
National Science Foundation
New Technology (Microsoft Operating System)
National Transportation Safety Board
New York Regional Processing Center
Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
On-Board Computer
Operational Concept Document
Office in Charge
Operations & Maintenance
Office of Motor Carriers
Office of Motor Carrier and Highway Safety
Owner-Operator Independent Driver Association
Out of Service
Out of Service Driver
Out of Service Vehicle
Open System Interconnection
Office of the Secretary of Transportation
Port of Entry Advanced Sorting System
Personal Computer
Personal Data Assistant
Problem Driver Pointer System
Packing Encoding Rules
Program Evaluation Review Technique
Past Inspection Query
Project Management Institute
Port of Entry
Post Office Protocol
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
Proposed Recommendation
Performance and Registration Information Systems Management
Provisional Standard
Public Service Commission
Public Service Telephone Network
Public Utility Commission
Regional Automated Permit Processing
Resource Description Format
W3C Recommendation
Roadside Electronic Screening
Request for Proposal
Request for Quote
Regional Fuel Tax Agreement
Roadside Operations Computer
CVO ROving VERification Van
Regional Processing Center; Remote Procedure Call
RS Information Systems, Inc.
Research and Special Program Administration
Registration, Title, Vehicle Dealers and Manufacturers
Road Weather Information System
Red, Yellow, Green
Society of Automotive Engineers
Safety and Fitness Electronic Records
Safety Status
(Not an acronym)
SAFER and CVIEW Visual User Environment
Southern Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Simple API for XML
Standard Carrier Alpha Code
SAFER CVIEW Application Programming Interface
Selective Compliance Enforcement
SAFER Data Mailbox
Standard Development Organization
Safety Data Systems
Southeastern States
Safety Evaluation Area
State Entry Beacon
Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection
Standard Generalized Markup Language
Strategic Highway Research Program
Switched Multimegabit Data Service
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Systems Network Architecture
Statement of Direction
Special Project Office
Structured Query Language
JHU/APL Strategic Systems Department
State-Specific Enhancement
Social Security Number
Single State Registration System
Standard Transportation Commodity Code
Statewide Transportation Improvement Program
State On-line Enforcement System
To Be Determined
Telecommunications Access Method
Transportation (US DOT) Computer Center
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Transportation Equity Act
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century
Telecommunications Industry Association
Tax Identification Number
Transportation Improvement Program
Transportation Operation Coordination Committee
Technical Performance Measure
Truck Rental And Leasing Association
Transportation Operations Coordination Committee
Transportation Research Board
Transaction Set
Unified Carrier Register
Unified Modeling Language
User Datagram Protocol
Uniform Resource Identifier
Universal Resource Locator
United States Department of Transportation
Verification and Validation
Value-Added Network
Vehicle Identification Number
Vehicle Information System for Tax Apportionment
VISTA Registration System
VISTA Tax System
Variable Message Sign
Vehicle to Roadside Communication
Vehicle Research Testing Center
Virtual Telecommunications Access Method
Vehicle Title Information Exchange
Wide Area Network
Working Draft
Western Association of State Highway Officials
Work Breakdown Structure
Web-Enabled Credentialing Interface
World Manufacturer Identifier
Western Regional Agreement
Washington State Department of Transportation
Washington Trucking Associations
World Wide Web
World Wide Web Consortium
eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language
eXtensible Markup Language
XML Query Language
eXtensible Stylesheet Language
eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations
(Not an acronym)
Year 2000
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3. Glossary

Section 3 contains the glossary terms and their definitions.  It is not the intent of JHU/APL to establish norms or standards for the terms.  In many cases, there are several definitions for a term.  Instead, the objective is to provide a compilation of common usage.  The presence of a definition in the glossary does not preclude other equally correct definitions.  The definitions in this glossary are organized alphabetically by term.

A national electronic telecommunications network developed by IBM and operated by AAMVAnet Inc., that connects the NDR, the CDLIS central site, other users and the on-line states.  [23]

AAMVAnet, Inc.
A nonprofit organization created by AAMVA, to deliver cost effective information system solutions.  [6]

AASHTO Value-Added Network
An AAMVAnet based network used to provide AASHTO members with access to Federal Highway Administration applications such as fiscal management information systems and a federal aid billing system.  [6]

To discontinue regulatory violations by refraining from or taking actions identified in a notice to correct noncompliance.  [2]

An unstabilized situation that includes at least one harmful event.  [21]

Additional Fleet Vehicles
Vehicles acquired by the registrant after the commencement of the registration year and added to the proportionally registered fleet.  [22]

Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation Concept (ADVANCE)
A cooperative effort to evaluate the performance of the first large-scale dynamic route guidance system in the U.S.

Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS)
One of six user services areas defined by the original ITS National Program Plan.  (Recent updates to the plan have reorganized the user services into different categories.)

Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS)
Information systems designed to provide roadway users with accurate and timely information on travel conditions.  [7]

Advantage CVO (formerly Advantage I-75)
A CVO operational test along Interstate 75.  This project represents a partnership of public and private sector interests along the I-75 corridor.  (See also Mainline Automated Clearance System.)

American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA)
A national organization of state agencies responsible for motor vehicle registration. [6]

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
An organization to develop and support guidelines for the construction, maintenance, and operation of surface transportation facilities.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
A clearinghouse for many nationally coordinated voluntary industry standards.  [8]

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
An organization to establish test standards for materials, products, systems, and services for a wide range of industries.

American Trucking Associations (ATA)
A national trade association of the trucking industry.  Its mission is to educate public officials about the trucking industry and to supply current, accurate information to ensure compliance with federal, state, and local laws.  [4]

Apportionable Fee
Any periodic recurring fee required for licensing or registering vehicles, such as, but not limited to, registration, license or weight fees.  [22]

Apportionable Fleet
One or more vehicles identified as a fleet, except recreational vehicles, vehicles displaying restricted plates, city pick-up and delivery vehicles, buses used in transportation of chartered parties, and government-owned vehicles, used in two or more member jurisdictions that allocate or proportionally register vehicles and is used for the transportation of persons for-hire or designed, used or maintained primarily for the transportation of property.  [22]

Apportionable Vehicle
Vehicle operating in two or more member jurisdictions and used for the transportation of persons or property may apply for apportioned registration.  Apportionable vehicles include:

  • a power unit having two axles and a gross vehicle weight in excess of 26,000 pounds, or;
  • a power unit having three or more axles, regardless of weight; or 
  • used in combination, when the weight of such combination exceeds 26,000 pounds gross weight.

Vehicles or combinations thereof, having a gross vehicle weight of 26,000 pounds or less and two-axle vehicles and buses used in transportation of chartered parties may be proportionally registered at the option of the registrant.  [22]

The overall structure and unifying design characteristics of a system.

Automatic Vehicle Classification (AVC)
Classifies trucks by vehicle length, number of axles, and axle spacing.

Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI)
Identifies vehicles using light, microwave, or radio frequencies.  Combines roadside receivers with on-board transponders to automatically identify vehicles.  This includes license plate readers.

Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL)
Calculates the location of a truck or trailer.  There are several types of AVL:  Dead Reckoning AVL and Radio determination AVL.  [29]

Serves as a communications handler and preprocessor for inbound vehicle inspection reports coming form the ASPEN inspection software.

Base Jurisdiction
In a base state agreement, the jurisdiction where operators or owners have an established place of business, where mileage is accrued by a fleet, and where operational records of a fleet are maintained or can be made available.  [22]

Base Plate
Under IRP, a license plate issued by the Base Jurisdiction.  It is the only registration identification plate issued for a vehicle by any member jurisdiction.  [22]

Base State System
A cooperative agreement under which an interstate carrier traveling in more than one jurisdiction will choose one state as a Base Jurisdiction.  Thereafter the Base Jurisdiction is responsible for all interactions with the carrier.  (See also Base Jurisdiction.) 

Base State Working Group on Uniform Motor Carrier Programs
A working group composed of state officials to facilitate state responses in meeting the mandate established in Section 4008 of the Motor Carrier Act of 1991.  [1]

Bingo Stamps
Stamps used by states as a revenue mechanism to cover costs associated with administration of motor carrier insurance requirements and the issuance of operating authority credentials. [37]

The program will disappear by 1994, when the ISTEA mandated base-state programs are implemented.  [28]

A motor vehicle consisting primarily of a transport device designed for carrying more than ten persons.  [21]

Any motor vehicle designed, constructed, and/or used for the transportation of passengers, including taxicabs.  [2]

Cab Card
Under IRP, a registration card (vehicle or fuel) issued by the Base Jurisdiction for a vehicle of an apportioned fleet which identifies the vehicle, base plate, registered weight by jurisdictions and shows the jurisdictions where the vehicle is properly registered.  [28]

Carrier Safety Fitness Rating (CSFR)
The safety rating of the carrier based on an official approved safety algorithm.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
“CSS is a simple styling language which allows attaching style to HTML elements.  Every element type as well as every occurrence of a specific element within that type can be declared an unique style, e.g., margins, positioning, color or size.”  (In reference to XML.) [48]

A legal action against a person, indicating that a law may have been broken.

Clearinghouse (CH)
An organization that processes information received electronically from states to compute fees due/owed each jurisdiction, and facilitates periodic transfers of funds.

A JHU/APL document providing CVISN pilot state agencies, motor carriers, and developers of CVISN Core Infrastructure systems with a comprehensive checklist of what is required to be compatible with CVISN operational concepts and architecture.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
A codification of the general rules published in the Federal Register by executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government.  An annual publication that contains all federal regulations in effect, which govern motor carrier safety.  Title 49 deals with motor carrier safety regulations.  [2]

Collision Accident
A road vehicle accident other than an overturning accident in which the first harmful event is a collision of a road vehicle in transport with another road vehicle, other property or pedestrians.

Combination Vehicle
Any combination of vehicles with a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds provided the GVWR of the vehicle being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds.  [2]

Combined Gross Weight
The total unladen weight of a combination of vehicles plus the weight of the load carried on that combination of vehicles.  [22]

Commercial Driver’s License (CDL)
A license issued to an individual by a state or other jurisdiction, according to the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 383, which authorizes the individual to operate a designated class of motor vehicles.  [2]

Commercial Driver’s License Information System (CDLIS)
A software system that serves as a pointer to the complete record kept by the state issuing the license.  The system is intended to provide states with the ability to check a nationwide information system for possible duplicates or for a suspended license before issuing a commercial driver’s license to an applicant.  It was established by FHWA according to section 12007 of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Act of 1986.  [23]

Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV)
Any self-propelled or towed vehicle used on highways in intrastate or interstate commerce to transport passengers or property:

  • if it has a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds; or
  • if it is designed to transport more than 16 passengers, including the driver; or
  • if it is used to transport hazardous materials (as defined in 49 U.S.C. App. 1801 et seq.) in quantity requiring placarding under federal regulation  [2]

Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act (CMVSA)
Requires all states to meet the same minimum standards for testing and licensing drivers of commercial motor vehicles.  The act also mandates uniform penalties and a central reporting system.  [16]

Commercial Trailer
A trailer used to handle freight in the transportation of goods for others; excludes house trailers, light farm trailers, and car trailers.

Commercial Vehicle Information Exchange Window (CVIEW)
A state-based electronic data exchange system that provides carrier, vehicle, and driver safety and credential information to fixed and mobile roadside inspection stations, state agencies, and other third party users.  [41]

Commercial Vehicle Information System (CVIS)
An information system being used to determine the feasibility of linking safety fitness to vehicle registration.  [25]

Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN)
CVISN is the collection of state, federal and private sector information systems and communications networks that support commercial vehicle operations (CVO).

Many improvement initiatives are currently underway to develop new systems and upgrade existing systems to add new capabilities and allow electronic exchange of information using open interface standards.  This will enable delivery of new electronic services to states and carriers in the broad areas of safety, credentials, and electronic clearance.  Specific examples of new services include:

  • providing timely safety information to inspectors at the roadside
  • providing operating credentials to motor carriers electronically
  • allowing states to exchange registration and fuel tax information electronically
  • conducting electronic screening of commercial vehicles at fixed and mobile sites while vehicles travel at highway speeds

In summary, CVISN components apply emerging technologies to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of state and private CVO stakeholders in the three broad functional areas of safety, credentials, and electronic screening.  [40]

Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO)
Includes all the operations associated with moving goods and passengers via commercial vehicles over the North American highway system and the activities necessary to regulate these operations.  [12]

Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)
An international organization of states, Canadian provinces and territories and Mexico, with the primary objectives of enhancing commercial vehicle safety, providing uniformity, consistency and reciprocity among its member jurisdictions that regulate commercial motor vehicle safety.  [30]

Compliance Order
A written direction to a respondent requiring the performance of certain acts which, based upon the findings in the proceeding, are considered necessary to bring a respondent into compliance with regulations found to have been violated.  [2]

Compliance Review (CR)
An on-site examination of motor carrier operations, such as drivers’ hours of service, maintenance and inspection records, driver qualifications, commercial driver’s license requirements, financial responsibility, accidents, hazardous materials, and other safety and transportation records to determine whether a motor carrier meets the safety fitness standard. [2]

Configuration Control Board (CCB)
A group of people responsible for evaluating and approving or disapproving proposed changes to configuration items, and for ensuring implementation of approved changes. [43]

An unvacated adjudication of guilt or a determination that a person has violated or failed to comply with the law in a court of original jurisdiction or by an authorized administrative tribunal, an unvacated forfeiture of bail or collateral deposited to secure the person’s appearance in court, a plea of guilty or nolo contendere accepted by the court, the payment of a fine or court cost, or violation of a condition of release without bail, regardless of whether or not the penalty is rebated, suspended, or probated.  [2]

COmmercial VEhicle, a state project for Electronic Data Sharing of information on CV safety, credentials, and oversize/overweight information.

A HELP demonstration project whose goals were to assess the viability of new technology (e.g., WIM, AVI) in the highway environment, improve institutional arrangements; measure the improvements to efficiency and productivity made by the HELP system and identify other applications for the technology developed under the HELP program.

Data Dictionary
A catalog of all data types, giving their names, structure, and information about data usage.  Advanced data dictionaries have a direct function that enables them to represent and report on the cross-references between components of data and business models.  [32]

Data Element
The smallest unit of data that has meaning in describing information; the smallest unit of named data.  A data element has a specified size and format.  [32]

Data Model
A logical map of data that represents the inherent properties of the data independently of software, hardware, or machine performance considerations.  The model shows data items grouped into third-normal-form records, and shows the associations among those records.  The term model may be contrasted with the term schema.  A schema also shows a logical representation of data, but it is usually related to a type of software representation.  [32]

Data Type
The size and type of a data element.  An interpretation applied to a string of bits, such as integer, real, or character.

A collection of interrelated data stored with controlled redundancy to serve one or more applications; the data is stored so that it is independent of programs that use the data; a common and controlled approach is used in adding new data, and in modifying and retrieving existing data within a database.  [32]

Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS)
Dun and Bradstreet’s Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS Number).  The DUNS Number is an internationally recognized nine-digit company identifier used for EDI and electronic commerce.

Dead Reckoning AVL
Dead reckoning AVL uses a magnetic compass and odometers to track distance and direction of travel from a known starting point.  Vehicle tracking must be continuous.  With recalibration every 20 miles, dead reckoning AVL is accurate within 100 feet.  The newest map matching systems use expert systems software to reconcile the truck’s path and current location against an electronic roadmap displayed on a video screen in the truck cab.  Location information can be stored onboard or transmitted to the fleet office.  [29]

Demographic Data
Under the IFTA, states collect and submit “demographic” information to the IFTA Clearinghouse.  The demographic information is basic census information from the IFTA registration application and includes name, address, and identifiers.

Department of Transportation (DOT)
A municipal, county, state, or federal agency responsible for transportation.  [3]

Document Type Definition (DTD)
A formal model that defines the role of each element of text.  The DTD declares each of the permitted entities, elements and attributes, and the relationships between them.  Used in reference to XML.  [47]

Document Object Module (DOM)
The Document Object Model is “a platform-and language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of documents.  The Document Object Model provides a standard set of objects for representing HTML and XML documents, a standard model of how these objects can be combined, and a standard interface for accessing and manipulating them.  Vendors can support the DOM as an interface to their proprietary data structures and APIs, and content authors can write to the standard DOM interfaces rather than product-specific APIs, thus increasing interoperability on the Web.” [45]

An auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for converting a semitrailer to a full trailer.

Domestic Intercity Trucking
Trucking operations within the territory of the United States, including intra-Hawaiian and intra-Alaskan, which carry freight beyond the local areas and commercial zones.

A combination of two trailers pulled by a power unit.  Usually refers to a power unit pulling two 28’ trailers.

An occupant, who is in actual physical control of a transport vehicle; or, for an out-of-control vehicle, an occupant who was in control until control was lost.  [21]

Driver’s License  (DL)
A license issued by a state or other jurisdiction, to an individual which authorizes the individual to operate a motor vehicle on the highways.  [2]

Driver/Vehicle Inspection System (DVIS)
Proposed system which will contain key data on drivers and vehicles from recent inspections. [25]

Driving Time
The time spent at the driving controls while operating a motor vehicle.  [2]

Educational Contact
A non-regulatory on-site review of carrier/shipper safety operations.  It is advisory in nature and is conducted by state enforcement officials in states that do not have a state level CR program in force.  This program is still being developed.  [31]

Electronic Clearance
The process that allows commercial vehicles, whether operating intrastate or interstate, to pass a check point (e.g., weigh station) at mainline speeds without stopping to be checked for proper credentials, weight, and safety status.  [35]

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
The exchange of routine business transactions in a computer-processable format, covering such traditional applications as inquiries, planning, purchasing, acknowledgements, pricing, order status, scheduling, test results, shipping and receiving, invoices, payments and financial reporting.  [8]

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
Any transfer of funds, other than a transaction originated by check draft, or other similar paper instrument, that is initiated through a computer terminal, telephonic instrument, computer, or magnetic tape to order, instruct, or authorize a financial institution to debit or credit an account.  [28]

Electronic Toll Collection (ETC)
The process that allows a driver to pay tolls electronically. 

Electronic Toll and Traffic Management (ETTM)
The use of AVI to electronically collect tolls, enabling vehicles to pay tolls without stopping at toll booths.

Electronics Industry Association (EIA)
Concerned with standards relating to electronic components and systems for a variety of users.

En route Transit Information
Provides travelers with real-time, accurate, transit and ride sharing information while en route to their destination.  [11]

A repository of knowledge about an enterprise, its goals, entities, records, organizational units, functions, processes, procedures, and application and information systems.  It is populated progressively during each stage of information engineering.  [32]

An authorization to an individual’s CDL required to permit the individual to operate certain types of commercial motor vehicles.  [2]

Enterprise Model
A description of the entity types, functions, and processes that define an enterprise and its interrelationships.  [32]

A person, place, thing, or concept that has characteristics of interest to an enterprise.  [32]

Entity-Relationship Diagram
A diagram representing entity types and the relationships between them, and certain properties of the relationship, especially its cardinality and name.  [32]

Event State
State where a safety event occurred (inspection, citation, accident or any other safety event). [25]

An investigation to determine whether a person is qualified to be licensed to drive.  It may include written, oral, and skills tests.

Exempt Motor Carrier
A person engaged in transportation exempt from economic regulation by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) under 49 U.S.C. 10526.  [2]

Fatal Accident
Any accident that results in one or more fatalities.

Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS)
A database containing information related to fatal collisions.

Fatal Injury
Any injury that results in death.

Any injury which results in the death of a person at the time of the motor vehicle accident or within 30 days of the accident.  [2]

Federal Bridge Formula
A formula specifying axle weights and axle spacing configurations that can be accommodated by a given bridge.  It was developed to prevent overstressing of highway bridges, the element of highway infrastructure most sensitive to structural damage.  [29]

Federal Heavy Vehicle Use Tax (FHVUT)
A federal tax assessed by the Federal Internal Revenue Service for all vehicles over 55,000 pounds gross weight or combined gross weight.  Proof of payment is required for vehicle registration, except new vehicles registered within 60 days.  [34]

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
An agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)
The Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act was signed into law on December 9, 1999.  This act established a new FMCSA within the US DOT, effective January 1, 2000.  Prior to that, the motor carrier and highway safety program was administered under the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).

The FMCSA’s mission is to improve truck and commercial passenger carrier safety on our nation’s highways through information technology, targeted enforcement, research and technology, outreach, and partnerships.  The FMCSA manages the ITS/CVO program, a voluntary effort involving public and private partnerships that uses information systems, innovative technologies, and business practice reengineering to improve safety, simplify government administrative systems, and provide savings to states and motor carriers.  The FMCSA works closely with the FHWA’s ITS JPO to ensure the integration and interoperability of ITS/CVO systems with the national ITS program.

These federal regulations attempt to improve the safety of commercial vehicle operations by reducing the incidence of mechanical defects and use of unqualified drivers. [2]

Federal Register
The official public notice of government actions. 

Federal Telecommunication System 2000 (FTS 2000)
GSA initiative to create a new and improved private telecommunication network capable of handling the new technological demands of the upcoming century.

Federation of Tax Administrators (FTA)
An organization representing and addressing issues of concern to state tax administrators.

An offense under state or federal law that is punishable by death or imprisonment for a term exceeding one year.  [2]

Fifth Wheel
A device mounted on a truck tractor or similar towing vehicle that interfaces with and couples to the upper coupler assembly of a semitrailer.  [2]

Under IRP, one or more apportionable vehicles.  [21]

For Hire Motor Carrier
A person engaged in the transportation of goods or passengers for compensation.  [2]

For Hire Vehicle
A vehicle used to transport goods or passengers for compensation.

Any commodity being transported.

Freight Forwarder
An individual or company that accepts less-than-truckload (LTL) or less-than-carload (LCL) shipments from shippers and combines them into carload or truckload lots.  Designated as a common carrier under the Interstate Commerce Act.

Frontage Road
A roadway generally paralleling an expressway, freeway, parkway, or through street designed to intercept, collect and distribute traffic desiring to cross, enter, or leave such facility and to furnish access to property which otherwise would be isolated as a result of controlled-access features.  The frontage road may be within the same traffic way as the main roadway or in a separate traffic way.

Full Trailer
A trailer, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying property and so constructed that no part of its weight rests upon or is carried by the towing road vehicle.  An auxiliary undercarriage assembly – commonly known as a converted dolly and consisting of a chassis, fifth wheel, and one or more tow bars – is sometimes used to convert a semitrailer to a full trailer.

A logical collection of processes within a business segment.  [32]

General Freight Carrier
A carrier which handles a variety of commodities, typically in LTL quantities and generally involves the use of terminal facilities to break and consolidate shipments.

Geographical Information System (GIS)
A computerized data management system designed to capture, store, retrieve, analyze, and report geographic and demographic information.  [33]

Global Positioning System (GPS)
A government-owned system of 24 earth orbiting satellites that transmit data to ground-based receivers.  GPS provides extremely accurate latitude and longitude ground positions in WGS-84 coordinates.  [33]

Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR)
The value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a combination (articulated) vehicle.  In the absence of a value specified by the manufacturer, GCWR will be determined by adding the GVWR of the power unit and the total weight of the towed unit and any load thereon.  [2]

Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
The maximum allowable fully laden weight of the vehicle and its payload.  The most common classification scheme used by manufacturers and by states, often for both trucks and tractors.  [22]

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)
A value specified by the manufacturer for a single-unit truck, track tractor, or trailer, or gross combined weight rating the sum of such values for the units which make up a truck combination.  In the absence of a gross vehicle weight rating, an estimate of the gross weight of a fully loaded unit may be substituted for such a rating.  The gross vehicle weight rating of a truck combination may be called the gross combination weight rating.  [21]

Harmful Event
Occurrence of injury or damage.

Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT or HM)
A material or substance which has been determined by the Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce and has been so designated.  This includes radioactive material, explosives, and poisonous materials.  [9]

Hazardous Material Transportation Act (HMTA)
This act mandated 13 federal rule makings and studies to deal with areas of concern, including routing of hazardous materials, changes in placarding, training for hazardous material employees, motor carrier registration and permitting and electronic data interchange.  [9]

Hazardous Material Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA)
An act, passed in 1990, which requires that certain carriers and shippers engaged in the transportation of hazardous materials register with the Secretary of Transportation.  The Hazardous Material Transportation Act (1974) extends the DOT’s authority to regulate hazardous materials.  [9]

Heavy Duty Truck
Truck with a gross vehicle weight generally more than 19,500 pounds (class 6-8).  Other minimum weights are used by various laws or government agencies.

Heavy Straight Vehicle
Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 or more pounds, or any such vehicle towing a vehicle not in excess of 10,000 pounds GVWR.

Heavy Vehicle Electronic License Plate (HELP)
A multi-state, multi-national program which was established to develop and test the technologies for an integrated heavy vehicle monitoring and management system.

Hours of Service (HOS)
The hours of service that a driver has operated a vehicle.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
HTML is a simple language based on SGML suited for hypertext, multimedia, and the display of small and reasonably simple documents.  SGML lets document makers describe their own grammar, and specify both the tag set used in the document and the structural relationships those tags represent.  HTML applications are applications using a small set of tags that conform to a single SGML specification thus limiting extensibility, structure, and validation.  [46]

IFTA Audit
A review of a carrier’s records to verify fuel usage claims and other data supplied on IFTA tax forms.

IFTA, Inc.
A nonprofit corporation chartered for the purpose of providing information, support, and training to carriers and public administrators in implementing and operating under the provisions of the International Fuel Tax Agreement for payment of fuel taxes by commercial motor vehicles.  [37]

The Internet is a world-wide network of computers, comprised of thousands of smaller regional networks scattered across the globe.  It is now a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to tens of millions of people worldwide.  Physically, the Internet uses a portion of the total resources of the currently existing public telecommunication networks.  Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).

IRP Audit
A review of a carrier’s records to verify mileage figures and other data supplied by the carrier as a basis for determining registration fees and fee apportionment by IRP.

IRP, Inc.
A nonprofit corporation chartered for the purpose of providing information, support, and training to carriers and public administrators in implementing and operating under the provisions of the International Registration Plan for commercial motor vehicles.  [37]

Imminent Hazard
Any condition of vehicle, employee or commercial motor vehicle operation which is likely to result in serious injury or death if not discontinued immediately.  [31]

Incapacitating Injury
Any injury, other than a fatal injury, which prevents the injured person from walking, driving or normally continuing the activities the person was capable of performing before the injury occurred.

Items issued by the Registration Agency which indicate" registration information has been gathered and appropriate fees paid.  Indicia include license plates, fuel stickers, cab cards, etc.  [31]

Bodily harm to a person.  This definition does not include effects of diseases such as stroke, heart attack, diabetic coma, epileptic seizure, and others.

Injury Accident
Any road vehicle accident that results in one or more injuries.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
IEEE fosters development of standards within the full range of electronics and electrical engineering areas.

Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE)
Maintains references on a variety of standards and guidelines affecting the surface transportation industry.

Intelligent Transportation Society of America (ITSA)
A Federal Advisory Committee to advise the U.S. Department of Transportation on the ITS program.

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA)
This act requires all states to participate in IFTA and IRP by September 30, 1996.  Provides primary federal funding for highway programs in the U.S.  Contains IVHS Act of 1991 (Title VI, Part B).

International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA)
A base state agreement among states for collecting and disbursing fuel use tax.

International Registration Plan (IRP)
A base state agreement, mandated by ISTEA, that provides for vehicle registration reciprocity among member jurisdictions.  Current members include most states and Canada.  [22]

The quality that describes different types of products or systems cooperating to accomplish a shared function.  For example, DSRC readers and transponders are products that must interoperate to support various roadside – vehicle interactions.  [42]

Interstate Commerce
Trade, traffic or transportation in the U.S. which is between a place in a state and a place outside of such state or is between two places in a state through another state.  [2]

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
A commission with the authority to regulate the interstate motor carrier industry by the Motor Carrier Act of 1935.  [3]

Interstate Highway
A trafficway on the Interstate System.

Interstate Motor Carrier
A motor carrier engaged in interstate commerce whose vehicle(s) transports property or passengers between or through two or more states or other jurisdictions (see “Jurisdiction”). [16]

Interstate Operation
Vehicle movement between or through two or more jurisdictions.  [22]

Intrastate Commerce
Any trade, traffic or transportation in any state which is not in interstate commerce.  [2]

Intrastate Motor Carrier
A motor carrier whose vehicle(s) transports property or passengers from one point within a jurisdiction to another point within the same jurisdiction, excluding interstate movements.

Intrastate Operation
Vehicle movement from one point within a jurisdiction to another point within the same jurisdiction.  [22]

Either an intersection or the connection between a driveway access and a roadway other than a driveway access.  [3]

Jurisdiction means a state territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, or a state, province, or territory of a country.  [22]

A written document vesting exclusive possession, control of and responsibility for the operation of a vehicle to a lessee for a specific period of time.  [22]

Less Than Truckload (LTL)
A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a truckload rate.  Usually less than 10,000 pounds.

A person, firm, or corporation which has the legal possession and control of a vehicle owned by another under terms of a lease agreement.  [22]

A person, firm, or corporation which, under the terms of a lease, grants the legal right of possession, control of, and responsibility for the operations of the vehicle to another person, firm, or corporation.  [22]

Licensing Application Migration Project (LAMP)
Combines vehicle database and driver’s license database.  [28]

Light Trucks
Trucks under 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating (e.g., pickups, vans, truck-based station wagons, and multi-purpose vehicles).

Long-Term Lease
A lease written for a period exceeding 29 consecutive days.  [22]

Mainline Automated Clearance System (MACS)
A demonstration project that allows transponder-equipped trucks to travel the entire length of I-75 and Highway 401 at mainline speeds with no more than one stop at an inspection station and still verifying weight compliance and credential status.  It is part of Advantage I-75. [5]

The portion of a divided highway or guideway that separates the opposing flows of traffic. [3]

Medium and Heavy Trucks
Trucks over 10,000 pounds GVWR, including single-unit trucks, tractor-trailer combinations, trucks with cargo trailer(s), and truck-tractors pulling no trailer.

Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)
The organization designated by the governor and local elected officials as responsible, together with the state, for transportation planning in an urbanized area.  [3]

Motor Carrier
A person (an individual, partnership, association, corporation, business trust, or any other organized group of individuals) who is responsible for the safety fitness of a commercial motor vehicle engaged in commerce on roads and highways.  [25]

Motor Carrier Management Information System (MCMIS)
A central repository of comprehensive safety data on interstate motor carriers maintained by the FHWA OMC.

Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP)
A program established to get potentially unsafe drivers and imminently hazardous vehicles off the road by increasing the level of safety enforcement activity.

Motor Vehicle
Any vehicle, machine, tractor, trailer, or semitrailer propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used upon the highways in the transportation of passengers or property.

Any occupant of a motor vehicle in transport.

Multi-Jurisdictional Oversize and Overweight Organization
An organization of 10 states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) that promotes standard oversize weight permitting and enforcement.  [29]

“XML namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying element and attribute names used in Extensible Markup Language documents by associating them with namespaces identified by URI references.” [45]

National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)
A program established by AASHTO to provide a mechanism for a national coordination program of cooperative research employing modern scientific techniques.  [3]

National Driver Register (NDR)
A national repository of state submitted data about adverse actions applied to a driver’s record.  Updated information is returned to the states.

National Governors’ Association (NGA)
An organization whose members are the governors of each state in the United States of America.  It serves as a vehicle through which governors influence the development and implementation of national transportation policy.  [26]

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
A branch of the U.S. Department of Transportation responsible for overseeing and improving safety and standards in the United States.

National Incident Management Coalition (NIMC)
A program created to serve as a focus for consensus building, and for promotion and wider implementation of incident management programs.

National Law Enforcement Telecommunication System (NLETS)
A store and forward computer controlled message switching system which links together state, local and federal law enforcement and criminal justice agencies for the purposes of information exchange.  [10]

National Motor Vehicle Title Information System (NMVTIS)
An information system allowing users to check the validity, and status of title documents, check vehicles titled in other jurisdictions, check salvage and junk vehicles, review odometer readings and review information reported by salvage yards and insurance companies.  The system is being developed to support the requirements of the Anti-Car Theft Act of 1992 and must be operational by 1 January 1996.  [38]

National Private Truck Council (NPTC)
An association of corporations that operate their own trucking fleets.  [28]

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
An independent agency of the Federal Government whose responsibilities include investigating transportation accidents and conducting studies, and making recommendations on transportation safety measures and practices to government agencies, the transportation industry, and others.  [3]

New England Transportation Consortium (NETC)
A consortium of New England States including Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Vermont which enables carriers moving oversize and overweight vehicles to obtain one permit for travel in all states participating in the NETC.  [13]

Non-Regulated Trucking
A carrier that is exempt from economic regulation, e.g., exempt agricultural shipments.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
An agreement establishing a free trade area between Canada, Mexico, and the United States, which provides for the phase out of restrictions on cross-border land transportation services.  [27]

Notice Of Investigation (NOI)
Notice to a respondent (motor carrier) that the FHWA has discovered safety regulation violations that may require a compliance order and/or a monetary penalty.  [31]

Any person who is part of a transport vehicle.

Office of Motor Carriers (OMC)
A division of the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) responsible for issues concerning the nation’s motor carrier industry and is organized as follows:

  • Headquarters – OMC’s main office is at the USDOT building in Washington, D.C.
  • Regional – There are nine OMC regions in the United States.  Regional offices report to headquarters.
  • Division – Each State has a division office that works closely with state motor carrier safety and registration officials.  Division offices report to the Regional offices. [25]

Office of the Secretary of Transportation (OST)
An agency responsible for providing policy development and program oversight as well as coordination among various DOT agencies.  OST is also responsible for reviewing proposed budgets, evaluation, legal issues, and initiating research.  [14]

On-Board Computer (OBC)
Special purpose microcomputers that are attached to sensors that record vehicle and driver attributes.

On-Board Safety Monitoring
The systems that provide for sensing the safety status of a vehicle, cargo, and driver at mainline speeds.

On-Duty Time
On-duty time starts when the driver begins work or must be ready for work and ends when the driver is relieved of all responsibility.  On-duty time includes all time spent driving, loading and unloading, preparing accident reports and attending to the operation of a vehicle.  It also includes meals and coffee breaks.  [2]

One-Stop Shopping
Refers to the ability to obtain all required tax and regulatory credentials from a single source.

Operating Authority
Specifies the products a carrier may haul and where it may haul them.  The legal permission required by a carrier to haul goods from one point to another.  [16]

Operating Expenses
The costs of handling traffic, including both direct costs, e.g., driver wages and fuel, and indirect costs, e.g., computer expenses and advertising, but excluding the interest expense.

Operations Out of Service Order
The official document or declaration used by FHWA or state enforcement officials to order a motor carrier, driver or vehicle to cease operations for imminent hazard conditions.  [31]

With respect to motor vehicles, every person, other than a chauffeur, who is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle on a highway.

Other U.S. Route Numbered Highway
A traffic way numbered by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), but not an interstate highway.

Out of Service Driver (OOSD)
A driver who can no longer operate a vehicle because of being on duty over the maximum periods permitted by the Code of Federal Regulations.  [2]

Out of Service Vehicle (OOSV)
A vehicle which cannot be operated because the vehicle is in such a condition as to likely cause an accident or breakdown.  [2]

Out of Service Violation
Any violation of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations which results in a vehicle out of service condition.  [2]

Oversize/Overweight Permit
A special permit that is issued for vehicles operating outside the statutory limits set for size and weight.

Overturning Accident
A road vehicle accident in which the first harmful event is the overturning of a road vehicle.

The entity listed as the owner of a vehicle.  [21]

Owner-Operator Independent Driver Association (OOIDA)
A national trades association that serves the interest of independent owner/operators.  [28]

An equipment lessor who leases his vehicular equipment with driver to a carrier.  [22]

Any occupant of a road vehicle other than its driver.

The transportation of highway trailers or removable trailer bodies on rail cars specifically equipped for the service.  It is essentially a joint carrier movement in which the motor carrier forms a pickup and delivery operation to a rail terminal, as well as a delivery operation at the terminating railhead.

Port of Entry (POE)
A roadside site used to monitor and regulate trucks using state highways with respect to weight, size, safety and possibly weight distance taxation.  [15]

Port of Entry Advanced Sorting System (PASS)
An operational test of WIM, AVI, AVC, OBC, and two way communication systems to pre-clear trucks on mainline I-5 at Ashland (Oregon) port of entry. 

Possible Injury
Any injury reported or claimed which is not a fatal injury, incapacitating injury or nonincapacitating evident injury.

Power Unit
The control and pulling vehicle for trailers or semitrailers.

Pre-Trip Travel Information
A user service that will provide travelers with information before their departure and before the mode choice is made.

Principal Place of Business
A single location designated by the motor carrier, normally its headquarters, where records will be maintained.  [16]

Private Carrier
A person, firm, or corporation which uses its own trucks to transport its own freight.  [22]

Problem Driver Pointer System (PDPS)
A central repository of information regarding problem drivers throughout the country.  Its primary function is to support the driving license issuing process.

A repetitive, well-defined set of logical tasks that support one function, can be defined in terms of inputs and outputs, and have a definable beginning and end.  Processes can be decomposed into processes and are triggered by an event and carried out by a business segment to achieve a stated purpose.  A low-level process may be replicated across the business segment.  [32]

Profile (see Report)

Public Service Commission (PSC)
A state agency whose responsibilities include regulation of for-hire (public and private) carriers of passengers and goods within a state.  [3]

Public Utility Commission (PUC)
A state agency whose responsibilities include regulation of for-hire (public and private)  carriers of passengers and goods within a state.  [3]

Radio Determination AVL
Radio determination AVL uses radio signals to measure the distance between a truck and two or more known points; location is calculated by triangulation.  Government radio determination systems use one-way radio signals:  the Loran-C system transmits from a network of ground towers:  and the NavStar Global Positioning system (GPS) uses a network of satellites.  Trucks can be equipped with receivers and computers to decode the signals and calculate location, or data can be transmitted to a central computer for processing.  Vehicle tracking can be continuous or intermittent.  Loran-C is accurate within several thousand feet and GPS within several hundred feet.  Location information can be stored onboard or transmitted to the fleet office.  [29]

An auxiliary roadway used for entering or exiting mainline highway facilities.

Under the IRP, states collect and submit “recap” information to the IRP Clearinghouse.  A recap provides information from IRP applications and supplements including name, address, identifiers, miles registered by the carrier for each jurisdiction, vehicle and registration specific information, weight registered and fee collected for each vehicle for each jurisdiction.

Reciprocity Agreements
Agreements between states allowing for the reciprocal granting of equivalent rights and/or privileges to properly credentialed vehicles.  [16]

Regional Automated Permit Processing (RAPP)
Pilot project which generated a central shared database enabling participating states to track permits and check credentials.  [29]

Regional Fuel Tax Agreement (RFTA)
A base state agreement entered by Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire to administer interstate fuel tax.

Registered Weight
The weight for which a vehicle is licensed or registered within a particular jurisdiction.  [22]

A person, firm, or corporation in whose name or names a vehicle is properly registered.  [22]

Registration Agency
A governmental organization which gathers registration information, collects registration fees and issues indicia (plates, stickers, cab cards, etc.) for commercial motor vehicles.

Registration State
A state in which a motor carrier has registered its vehicles for operation.  [25]

 Regulated Motor Carrier
A carrier subject to economic regulation by the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Restoration of driving privilege or credential following suspension or upon renewal after expiration (within the grace period).

Remittance Netting
Each month, the IRP Clearinghouse summarizes the recaps submitted to determine fees collected on behalf of one jurisdiction for another.  The “remittance netting” report, prepared for each member jurisdiction, shows to which jurisdictions the member owes fees and from which other jurisdictions the member is due fees.

Report (formerly profile)
A more detailed expansion of the information in a snapshot.  A report provides the same kind of information as in a snapshot, but at a more detailed level (e.g., specific inspection data, accident records, and events).

Research and Special Program Administration (RSPA)
An agency responsible for developing and researching transportation system approaches and technologies with intermodal impacts, including the development and implementation of telecommunication and radio navigation policy.  [14]

Resource Description Framework (RDF)
“Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a foundation for processing metadata; it provides interoperability between applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the Web.  RDF emphasizes facilities to enable automated processing of Web resources…  The RDF integrates a variety of web-based metadata activities including sitemaps, content ratings, stream channel definitions, search engine data collection (web crawling), digital library collections, and distributed authoring, using XML as an interchange syntax.”  [45]

In most jurisdictions, revocation of a credential terminates the privileges granted by that credential.  At the end of a specified revocation period, reapplication for the credential is usually allowed.

That part of a traffic way which includes both the roadway and any shoulder alongside the roadway.

The part of the traffic way between the outer edge of the shoulder and the edge of the traffic way; off the road, but inside the traffic way and not part of the median.

Roadside Inspection
An inspection of a commercial vehicle or driver that occurs at the roadside. 

Roadside Operations Computer (ROC)
A computer system used to perform the functions of electronic screening at either a fixed or mobile roadside station.  [39]

That part of a traffic way designed, improved, and ordinarily used for motor vehicle travel or, where various classes of motor vehicles are segregated, that part of a traffic way used by a particular class.  Separate roadways may be provided for northbound and southbound traffic or for trucks and automobiles.  Bridle paths and bicycle paths are not included in this definition.  [3]

Rocky Mountain Double
A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor, a 45- to 48-foot semitrailer, and a shorter 28-foot semitrailer.

Rural Area
Any area not within urban areas.

A distributed system for managing safety data on both interstate and intrastate motor carriers and for the federal and state offices to electronically exchange data on interstate carriers with MCMIS.

Safety State
The state of the motor carrier’s principal place of business for safety as indicated on the MCS-150 form.  This is the place where safety records are maintained.  [25]

Safety and Fitness Electronic Records (SAFER)
An on-line system that will be available to users over a nationwide data network which will return a standard carrier safety fitness record to the requester within a few seconds.  [31]

Safety Status (SafeStat)
A summary measure of a motor carrier’s safety performance and history.

The process of using historical and sensor information to determine whether to allow a vehicle to continue down the road.

Selective Compliance Enforcement (SCE)
A program used by FHWA to prioritize carriers for participation in compliance reviews based on commodity transported, annual carrier mileage, months since last review, vehicle OOS rate, driver out of service rate, preventable recordable accident rate, and general safety fitness rating.  [18]
A trailer, other than a pole trailer, designed for carrying property and so constructed that part of its weight rests upon or is carried by the towing road vehicle.  A truck trailer equipped with one or more axles and constructed so that the front end rests upon a truck tractor.

Shared Road
Any bikeway that is part of a roadway, but not a bicycle lane.

That part of a traffic way contiguous with the roadway for emergency use, for accommodation of stopped road vehicles, and for lateral support of the roadway structure.

Single State Registration System (SSRS)
A base state agreement for administering operating authority.

Smart Card
Plastic cards with an embedded integrated circuit chip containing memory and microprocessor.

Snapshot (also see Report)
A condensed collection of safety and summary level information pertaining to:  who a carrier is, where the carrier is based, his basic type of operation, and the carrier’s safety rating and safety record.

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
A society which advances international standards pertaining to the automotive manufacturing industry.

Southern Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (SASHTO)
An organization started in 1993 to adopt a multi-state oversize/overweight agreement for its member states.

Specialized Carrier
A trucking company franchised to transport articles that because of size, shape, weight, or other inherent characteristics, require special equipment for loading, unloading or transporting.

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
SGML is an international standard (ISO 8879) for defining descriptions of the structure and content of different types of electronic documents.  XML is a simplified subset of SGML facilities designed to enable the use of SGML on the World Wide Web.

State Entry Beacon (SEB)
A fixed position controller, also called a reader, its associated transmit and receive antennas, modulation/demodulation hardware and software which are located at the state border.  [20]

State Route Numbered Highway
A traffic way within a state traffic way system, but not an interstate highway or other U.S. route numbered highway.

State of Domicile
The state in which a carrier maintains its headquarters.

Straight Truck
A vehicle with its cargo body and tractor mounted on the same chassis.

Tag Number
A vehicle’s license plate number, including state, of a vehicle.

Tank Vehicle
Any commercial motor vehicle that is designed to transport any liquid or gaseous materials within a tank that is either permanently or temporarily attached to the vehicle or the chassis. [2]

Technical Performance Measure
A quantitative expressing some measurable, technical characteristic of a system which is the key to the effectiveness of the system.

Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
An industry organization that promotes telecommunications standards.

Temporary Trip Permit
Temporary travel permits, valid for two to ten days, allowing a vehicle to travel in a jurisdiction where a carrier does not have a permanent registration permit.

Third Structure Tax
Any tax on road users other than registration fees or fuel taxes.  See, for example, ton-mile tax and weight-distance tax.

Ton Mile Tax
A per-mile tax, calculated by determining the ratio of actual vehicle gross weight to the sum of actual miles traveled at that weight.  A weight distance tax, which is similar, bases the tax on registered (instead of actual) gross vehicle weight.  [16]

Total Distance
For IRP, the total number of miles operated by a fleet of proportionally registered vehicles in all jurisdictions during the preceding year.  [22]

A self-propelled motor vehicle designed and/or used primarily for drawing other vehicles. [2]

Tractor Semitrailer
A combination vehicle consisting of a power unit (tractor) and a semitrailer.

Traffic Unit
A road vehicle or a pedestrian.

A road vehicle designed to be drawn by another road vehicle. [2]

Carriers file quarterly IFTA tax returns.  Member jurisdictions submit “transmittals” to the IFTA Clearinghouse that report information from the tax returns.  Members can then review the tax return data applicable to their jurisdiction.

Transparent Borders
The ability of commercial vehicles to travel unimpeded across state borders.

An electronic tag carried by a motor vehicle that has electronically stored information that can be retrieved by a roadside reader.

Transportation Computer Center (TCC)
Houses the mainframe computer system used by the Department of Transportation.  MCMIS resides on this mainframe.  [19]

Transportation Operation Coordination Committee (TOCM)
A group of 15 transportation and public safety agencies that manages regional traffic for heavily traveled New York/New Jersey/Connecticut corridor.

Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Under direction of National Academy of Science’s National Research council, it stimulates, correlates and makes known the findings of transportation research.

The period during which a vehicle is continuously travelling from its point of origin to its destination.  The vehicle may stop for short periods during the trip without causing discontinuation of the trip if no change occurs in the loaded weight.

Trip Ticket
An electronic ticket stored on the transponder which contains trip related information such as the carrier, vehicle, driver and transponder IDs, commodity code, weight measurements, date/time/location and results of last clearance event.  The trip ticket is transmitted during DSRC between vehicle and roadside reader equipment.

A motor vehicle designed to carry an entire load.  It may consist of a chassis and body, a chassis, cab and body, or it may be of integral construction so that the body and chassis form a single unit.

Truck Combination
A truck consisting primarily of a transport device which is a single-unit truck or truck tractor with one or more attached trailers.

Truck Tonnage
The weight of freight, measured in tons, transported by a truck.

Truck Tractor
A motor vehicle consisting of a single motorized transport device designed primarily for drawing trailers.

Quantity of freight required to fill a truck.  When used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate, usually over 10,000 pounds.

Turnpike Double
A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor and two trailers of 45 to 48 feet.

Twin Trailer
A short semitrailer (under 29’) designed to be operated as part of a combination vehicle with a tandem trailer of similar length.

Unified Carrier Register
A national system that will allow for registering carriers and issuing US DOT numbers.  It will maintain census information on carriers that are authorized to operate in the United States.  The concept for this system is being developed.  The UCR is intended to replace the current systems used for assigning DOT numbers, assigning ICC numbers, implementing the Single State Registration System (SSRS), and tracking financial responsibility.

Unladen Vehicle Weight
The weight of a vehicle fully equipped for service, not including the weight of its payload.

Unrated Carrier
A motor carrier without an assigned safety rating from the FHWA.  [2]

Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
A unique combination of alphanumeric characters affixed to one vehicle in specific locations and formulated by the manufacturer.  [21]

Vehicle Information System for Tax Apportionment (VISTA)
A software system developed by Lockheed Information Management Systems for calculating transactions among states based on reporting by carriers.

Vehicle Title Information Exchange (VTIE)
A system to enable the exchange of title information about specific vehicles to verify that titles are valid and detect altered or fraudulent documents.  [6]

Vehicle to Roadside Communication (VRC)
A means to deliver messages between moving vehicles randomly entering a communications zone and a fixed roadway infrastructure for both wide area communication and large based applications.  [20]

The process of checking the true, current status with the single, designated authoritative source.

A measurement of the total miles traveled by all vehicles in an area.  Generally applied to intercity movements only.

A violation of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations assigned to a vehicle as part of an inspection.

Washington Trucking Association (WTA)
A non-profit trade association in existence since 1922.  It consists of fourteen hundred members from common carriers, private carriers, movers, logging truckers, bulk carriers, heavy haul carriers, and suppliers.  [28]

Weigh-In-Motion (WIM)
Measures dynamic axle weight at highway or slower speeds.  Weigh-In-Motion refers to various technologies that enable vehicle weights to be determined without the need for a vehicle to physically stop on a scale.

Weight-Distance Tax
A tax based on a tax rate for the number of miles traveled and the weight of the vehicle.  Total tax liability is calculated by multiplying the tax rate for the weight times miles traveled.

Western Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (WASHTO)
A consortium of 17 states chartered primarily to provide uniform formulation and administration of size and weight regulations.  [28]

Western Regional Agreement (WRA)
An agreement among several western states that allows a motor carrier to purchase a single trip permit for a moderate oversize or overweight load.  This permit is valid in any of the participating states.  [16]

World Wide Web (WWW)
The World Wide Web is the most widely used part of the Internet.  Its outstanding feature is the Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP), a method of instant cross-referencing.  In most Web sites, certain words or phrases appear in text of a different color than the rest; often this text is also underlined – clicking on these words/phrases transfers the user to relevant sites.  The Web refers to a body of information – an abstract space of “pages” and links to pages accessible via the Internet, while the Internet refers to the physical side of the global network.

The Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X12 was chartered by ANSI in 1979 to develop uniform standards for interindustry electronic interchange of business transactions – electronic data interchange (EDI).  ASC X12 develops, maintains, interprets, publishes and promotes the proper use of American National and UN/EDIFACT International EDI Standards.  The EDI standards streamline business transactions by establishing a common, uniform business language for computers to communicate across town or around the world.  With more than 275 transactions sets, X12 standards can be used to electronically conduct nearly every facet of business-to-business operations.  The X12 standard development process involves negotiation and consensus building, resulting in approval and publication of Draft Standards for Trial Use and American National Standards.  The committee maintains current standards, proposes new standards and embraces new ideas.  The result of the ASC X12 committee’s efforts are the ANSI X12 standards.  [44]  

XML Base
XML Base is “a facility, similar to that of HTML BASE, for defining base URIs for parts of XML documents.  One of the stated requirements on XLink is to support HTML linking constructs in a generic way… XML Base is “a mechanism for providing base URI services to XLink, but as a modular specification so that other XML applications benefiting from additional control over relative URIs but not built upon XLink can also make use of it.” [45]

XML Linking Language (Xlink)
“The XML Linking Language (Xlink) allows elements to be inserted into XML documents in order to create and describe links between resources.  It uses XML syntax to create structures that can describe the simple unidirectional hyperlinks of today’s HTML, as well as more sophisticated links.” [45]

XLM Pointer Language (XPointer)
XML Pointer Language (XPointer) is “the language to be used as the basis for a fragment identifier for any URI reference that locates a resource of Internet media type text/xml or application/xml.

XPointer, which is based on the XML Path Language (XPath), supports addressing into the internal structures of XML documents.  It allows for examination of a hierarchical document structure and choice of its internal parts based on various properties, such as element types, attribute values, character content, and relative position.” [45]

XML Query
XML Query is a means “to provide flexible query facilities to extract data from real and virtual documents on the Web, therefore finally providing the needed interaction between the web world and the database world.  Ultimately, collections of XML files will be accessed like databases.” [45]

XML Schema
“XML Schemas express shared vocabularies and allow machines to carry out rules made by people.  They provide a means for defining the structure, content and semantics of XML documents.”

“The purpose of a schema is to define and describe a class of XML documents by using these constructs to constrain and document the meaning, usage and relationships of their constituent parts:  datatypes, elements and their content, attributes and their values, entities and their contents and notations.  Schema constructs may also provide for the specification of implicit information such as default values.  Schemas document their own meaning, usage, and function.  Thus, the XML schema language can be used to define, describe and catalogue XML vocabularies for classes of XML documents.” [45]

XML Signature and Canonicalization
“XML Signatures provide integrity, message authenication, and/or signer authentication services for data of any type, whether located within the XML that includes the signature or elsewhere… The XML Signature is a method of associating a key with referenced data (octets); it does not normatively specify how keys are associated with persons or institutions, nor the meaning of the data being referenced and signed.” [45] “Any XML document is part of a set of XML documents that are logically equivalent within an application context, but which vary in physical representation based on syntactic changes permitted by XML 1.0 and Namespaces in XML.  This specification describes a method for generating a physical representation, the canonical form, of an XML document that accounts for the permissible changes.  Except for limitations regarding a few unusual cases, if two documents have the same canonical form, then the two documents are logically equivalent within the given application context.  Note that two documents may have differing canonical forms yet still be equivalent in a given context based on application-specific equivalence rules for which no generalized XML specification could account.” [45]

“XPath is a language for addressing parts of an XML document, designed to be used by both XSLT and XPointer.” [45]

eXtensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML)
“XHTML is a family of current and future document types and modules that reproduce, subset, and extend HTML 4.  XHTML family document types are XML based and, ultimately, are designed to work in conjunction with XML-based user agents.” [45]

eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
“Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a subset of SGML… Its goal is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in the way that is now possible with HTML.  XML has been designed for ease of implementation and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML.” [45]

eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)
“XSL is a language for expressing stylesheets.  It consists of two parts:

  • XSL Transformations (XSLT):  a language for transforming XML documents
  • An XML vocabulary for specifying formatting semantics (XSL Formatting Objects)

An XSL sylesheet specifies the presentation of a class of XML documents by describing how an instance of the class is transformed into an XML document that uses the formatting vocabulary.” [45]

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